1. National Integration: One of the needs that necessitate the adoption of the Nigerian federation is the desire to bring all the diverse ethnic groups together as one strong and indivisible political entity that is capable of protecting her sovereignty,
2. Unity in Diversity: Another very important need or factor that encouraged the practice of Nigerian federalism was the desire to bring unity among the various federating units despite the diversity (differences) in their ethnic, socio-cultural geographical and religious backgrounds.
3. Controlling the activities of states: The federal system of government as operated in Nigeria is purposely designed to allay the fear of domination by a major ethnic group. In light of this, the system confers supreme powers to the central government to protect the various federating units while at the same time controlling the activities of the states that make up the federation.
4. Fear of External Aggression: The amalgamation of smaller states to form a federation is usually necessitated for fear of domination and/or external attack by bigger or powerful states, Some countries, Nigeria for instance, chose to adopt the federal system of government purposely to form a common and stronger government to help secure the sovereignty of the country and protect her political integrity.
5. Even Development: Economic factor is another aspect that brings people together to form a federation. To this end therefore, federalism promotes and ensures rapid and ever development of II parts of the federating states, Federation promotes equal distribution of resources to the various component units,
6. Size of the country and its geographical location: The vastness of a country coupled with its geographical location also plays a very vital role in the desire for a federal state among previously independent communities. To help boost geographical proximity and continuity, people come together to form a federation.
7. Administrative Efficiency: To meet the administrative needs of states with large expanse of land, a federation is formed for harmony and administrative efficiency among the various states. It also helps in curbing or alleviating the problem of ethnic, sociocultural, religious and political sentiments chauvinism.
8. Grass-root participation in Government: A federation is equally formed to promote grassroots’ political participation and to make the various federating units have a sense of belonging in the affairs of their country. Federation also engenders equal representation in government among the federating units hence ameliorates issues of marginalization by majority groups over the minority.