1. Power sharing: In a federation, governmental powers are constitutionally shared between deferral and state governments into exclusive, concurrent and residual lists.
2. Federal Constitution: The operation of a federal system of government is backed up by a constitution which is usually written and rigid in nature. In a federal system, the constitution is supreme and hence supersedes every other law of the land.
3. Separation of powers; The federal system of government observes strictly, the principle of the separation of powers among the three arms of government.
4. Supremacy of the constitution: The constitution of a federal system of government is held supreme.
5. Three-tier government: The federal system of government is popularly known as a three-tier government comprising of the federal, state and local governments.
6. A federation operates a two-chamber Legislature
7. The federal system of government ensures equal representation of all interest groups.
8. The system grants autonomy to the federating states thereby helping to preserve their local authorities and historical background and experiences.
9. The system also promotes grassroots political participation in government.