1. Supremacy of the people or political sovereignty:
The power they say belongs to the people. Modern democracy, therefore, promotes this principle as it gives the people the choice to either participate directly or elect representatives to cater for their interests in government.
2. Rule of law:
Modern democracy advocates and promotes equality before the law i.e. all citizens are equal before the law. The law that applies to the ruler should equally be applied to the ruled ceteris paribus.
3. Supremacy of the constitution:
Modern democracy also centres its structural arrangement on the provisions of the constitution, it advocates for strict adherence to the constitutional provision
4. Separation of powers:
Modem democracy advocates for the separation of powers among the three arms of government. The three arms of government should be separated both in functions and in personnel so that each arm can serve as a check on the other.
5. Political parties:
Democracy promotes the formation of political parties to go into competitive elections.
6. Judicial independence:
Modern democracy also advocates for the independence of the judiciary in all ramifications.
7. Rule by the majority:
Modern democracy is a system of government where the wishes and desires of the majority are held paramount.
8. Press freedom:
Modern democracy also advocates for the press to be free from all forms of intimidation/harassment that is most likely going to hinder them from reporting government activities the way they appear. Modern democracy, therefore, guarantees freedom of speech and that of the press.
9. Tolerance of opposition: Modern democracy also tolerates the existence of oppositions and their views/opinions.
10. Free and fair-elections
11. Human rights and political liberty.