Sokoto caliphate covered almost all the Northern parts of the country with the Eastern section comprising the emirate of Sokoto, Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Daura, Nasarawa, Katagum, Bauchi, Adamawa, Keffi and Zaria. Or the other hand, the western section comprised the emirate of Kebbi or what can otherwise be called Gwandu, Yauri, Illorin, Borg, and Nupe.
However, the entire empire was a confederation of states that shared the same religion, cultural and political bonds together.
Each emirate was headed by an emir appointed by the Sultan. The emirs also paid tribute to the sultan on annual basis.
They equally contributed military levies since the empire had no standing army.
Moreover, the governmental system was uniform and based on the old Hausa administrative system. Hence, there was an Islamic reform in the area. For example, the offices of the Waziri (Islamic adviser to the emir) and the Alkali (Muslim judge) were introduced.
Meanwhile, each emirate was divided into estates. And the r heads collected taxes for the emir. There were also the minor districts and village chiefs who were equally subject to the leadership of the emir