Temporary Hardness and Permanent Hardness

Temporary Hardness

It is caused by hydrogen trioxocarbonates of Ca and Mg. They are hardness that can be removed by boiling.

Ca (HCO3)2(aq)   →   CaCO3(s)+ CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Permanent Hardness

It cannot be removed by boiling. It is caused by tetraoxosulphate (iv) salts of Ca2+ and Mg2+

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