1. Power:

Power can be defined in the following ways:

i. as the ability and willingness to influence and control others to conform to your desire.

ii. As the ability and right to act, given by law or official position in which people are made to do what they would not have done ordinarily.

iii. As the capacity to resolve conflict situations, enforce decisions and compel obedience on the part of others.

iv. As an influence and control, which either individuals or one nation could exercise over the other to effect the desired change.

2. Authority:

This means legitimate power, which is recognised by law and by the citizens. It is the lawful right to make and enforce laws/policies, which must be binding on the citizens without refusal.

3 Legitimacy:

This is the support and moral recognition of the citizens, which makes a government legal and acceptable. It is the people’s acceptance and supports usually enjoyed by any regime in power.

4. Sovereignty:

Sovereignty is the supreme and final legal authority, above and beyond which no further legal power exists.

5. Constitution:

This is the whole body of fundamental rules written or unwritten, legal or extra-legal according to which a particular government operates. It is the fundamental principle that governs the organization of any government its institution, basic beliefs, goals and relationship of the individuals to the state.

6. Bills:

A bill means a proposal for a new law or a proposal to change an existing law or repeal a law, which is usually presented for debate by house members before the floor of the house (parliament). NOTE that before a bill is passed into law, the head of state or president must assent to the bill.

7. Rule of Law:

The concept of rule of law emphasizes the supremacy of the law over all other things, which translates to mean that the law as enshrined in the constitution of a country is paramount and above every other person or group of persons.

8. Separation of Powers:

This is the division of political powers among the three tiers/arms of government both in personnel and in functions.

9. Political Party:

This is an organized group of like-minded people with shared political ideologies seeking to take control of the government through constitutional means. Examples of political parties in Nigeria today are All Progressives Congress (APC), Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) etc.

10. Electoral process:

This is the whole system, procedure or arrangement through which a person or group of persons are elected into parliament, executive or any other government position. The electoral process can also be defined as the method by which the electorates elect their representatives into different political offices.

11. Franchise OR Suffrage:

Franchise or suffrage is the political right of qualified adult citizens of a country to vote and be voted for in an election. A franchise is also the same as suffrage.

12. Election:

This is the process of choosing a person or group of persons for a political position by voting.

13. Secret Ballot Voting:

This is a system whereby the electorates cast their votes outside the views of members of the public.

14. Open Ballot Voting:

This is a system whereby voting is done openly or publicly.

15. Open-Secret Ballot Voting:

This is the type of voting whereby voters cast their votes secretly while the votes cast are counted openly — i.e. in the presence of everyone that voted and the result is announced on the spot.

16. A Ballot

is a paper with which the electorates vote. A ballot Box is a box in which the electorates put their ballots after voting.

17. Bye-Election:

Is an election of a new member of parliament to replace somebody who has died or left the parliament.

18. Primary Election:

A primary election is an election conducted within a political party to choose a credible candidate that can adequately represent the interests of the party in a forthcoming election. The candidate chosen is regarded as the flag bearer of the party to which he/she belongs.

19. General Election:

Is an election in which all the people of a country vote to choose their leaders and/or government.

20. Referendum/Plebiscite:

is an occasion when all the people of a country can vote on an important issue. It is a “YES” or “NO” vote of the people pertaining to issues of national importance.

21. Free and Fair Election:

An election s said to be free and fair when it Is devoid of incidents of rigging or electoral malpractices and in which the voter’s right to vote for whomever he pleases is exercised without intimidation or threat from anyone.

22. Electoral Commission:

The process of the electoral system starts with the establishment of a body that will take charge of organizing and conducting all elections in the country. In Nigeria for instance, the body established to organize and conduct elections is known as the INDEPENDENT NATIONAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION (INEC).

23. Electoral Constituency:

An electoral constituency is a geographical division created according to the population of an area for the purpose of election. It is a political unit or electoral district that comprises all people of voting age and above (i.e. eligible voters), It can be a single-member constituency or a multi-member constituency.

24. Electoral malpractice:

is a negative behaviour can be defined as attitudes or conducts carried out or performed either by electoral bodies (INEC/SIEC), politicians themselves and their respective political parties or even voters which is intended to manipulate laid down procedures for the organization and peaceful conduct of free and fair elections in a country.

25. Press Freedom:

Press freedom is the unrestrictive expression of the mass media e.g. print media – Newspaper, Magazines and electronic media Television, Radio, Internet etc. It is the freedom to operate without too many restrictions and/or interference by the government in power

26. Fundamental Human Rights:

These are certain inalienable benefits and privileges enjoyed by citizens of a country. see more

37. Electorates:

The Whole body is qualified to vote during an election. And to be qualified, one must get registered with the electoral body and a voter’s card issued to that effect.

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