This is the vertical section of the soil from the surface to the bedrock, which reveals the various horizontal layers of the soil.
This is found in a well-developed soil with a lot of vegetation. It is called the organic top layer. It is a very thin layer and dark in colour. It consists of the underlying bedrock, which may be the rock from which the soil is formed.
This consists of the unconsolidated weathered parent rock materials in various stages of decomposition. It is called the parent rock.
This is immediately below horizon A. It is the region of deposition and accumulation from “A”. It is referred to as the zone of maximum alleviation. Materials like iron and aluminium oxides and silicate clay accumulate here. “B” -horizon constitutes the sub-soil.
This is the top mineral layer. It is rich in humus and can be easily leached. It is called the zone of maximum eluviations.