Is a combination of independent traders or manufacturers who come together for the motive of regulating and controlling output, marketing and regulating the prices of their goods. OPEC is a good example of a cartel.


Is the integration of a number of competing firms into one unit of control.

Price Rings

This is an association of competing firms producing similar products that come together and agree to fix a uniform price for their products services. E.g. taxi drivers.

A Consortium

Is the coming together of group of firms for the purpose of executing a large and complex project which one firm cannot execute. This form of integration is not permanent. The firms disengage immediately the project is completed.

Holding Companies:

Is a company that has controlling interest in another company known as its subsidiary and as such holds greater portion of shares in that company.


Is an association of producers of similar products to form a central agency.


Is the integration or merger of two or more firms to form one consolidated firm. Types of amalgamation are Vertical, Lateral and Horizontal integration.

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