This is formed when there is an excess of stream energy at sections of the stream channel where the slope exceeds what is required for transporting the stream level. Due to the excess stream energy, as caused by hard objects, it prevents a river from its normal course thus resulting to the formation of meanders.
Slip-off Slopes/River Cliff:
This is usually experienced when rocks found along the bank of a river stand steeply.
This is the part of a valley wall that projects from either side of a winding valley. This usually occurs when the action of meander cuts deeply the soil, thereby making the river to enter through the middle of the Spurs.